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XAMVVM-01 A real walk-through of Xamarin.UITest with Xamarin.Forms!

Let’s take a chilled out walk through adding Xamarin.UITests to your Xamarin.Forms project! 😉

When I said chilled out, I meant literally a chill, no-fuss walk through adding UITests for your Xamarin.Forms project solution. There’s many articles and tutorials out there regarding this, but when I first started I couldn’t find a clear enough guide to begin with for myself, so I was stumbling around in confusion here and there until I self-learned a proper foundation. That’s why I thought of writing this post.

This is an attempt of sharing my experience and intuition of how to architect a better UITest structure for your Xamarin.Forms Solution helping you to get a clear and easy head start!

So I’m not gonna get into extreme baby steps, or details, but a clear fuss-free hands-on guide for starting off with your UITests, which I hope would give you a clear picture and understand of the whole shabang! After all I’m all about that solid project architecture!

Why UITests?

Hey, if you’re looking for a serious intro, please Google! I don’t like repetition of content lol.

Xamarin.UITests comes in handy when you want to have consistent assurance of the actual functionality of the app with the UI behaviour included. And between you and me, I actually love watching UITests being executed on Devices and Simulators, seeing you app actually being used like a human, giving you a whole feedback loop of the UI behaviour , is just an incredible experience! 😉

 

Let’s get started..

Just for the showcase of this awesomeness, I created a little App, which is called Textpad, where you simple take notes or texts of whatever you feel like. 😉 A very simple out of the box Xamarin.Forms app, and fully MVVM architectured code base with Prism. I named the solution as “XFWithUITest” just for this demo.

Whatever the default template of the Xamarin.UITest has provided, I have done several changes to it here and there for the clarity and of the code base as you will see in this article.

So I’m gonna walk you through a clean and well-structured manner of adding Xamarin.UITests to your project solution.

You can take a little sneak peak at it over here in my github repo:
XAMVVM-Playground/XFWithUITest

Structure is important!

There’s many ways to structure a UITest, but I like a clean separation of the elements in any solution architecture. Like here we’re going to separate our Tests from the actual Host projects.

So first, for the name of separation let’s add a Folder called “Tests” in your Xamarin.Forms solution. Yes, that’s the way to start!

Then let’s create our Xamarin.UITest project, right-click on the “Tests” folder in the VS Solution Explorer and go to Test tab and select Xamarin.UITest Cross-Platform Test Project!

Also pay extra attention to the Name and Location value for our UITest project. Append “.UITest” at the end of your project name. As of the location, make sure to add the path along with the “Tests” folder that we created above.

Next create a new Folder inside of that project called “Tests”, yes another one, which is where we’re actually placing our tests! Also create a new class called SetupHooks, which is where we’ll maintain all the hooks that are needed for our tests. (I’ll get into details for this in a later step)

Now it should look something like this!

Nothing more.

Delete anything else that’s unnecessary or not seen above! 😉

Off to next step!

Don’t forget the nugets!

Make sure all the necessary nuget packages are in place, which is just basically the following 3 nugets! yep that’s it!

Pay very careful attention here to the version of NUnit version 2.6.4, which is the minimum NUnit version supported by Xamarin.UITest as of today. (01/11/2018)

The deal with AppInitializer!

Now this right here is where your Tests will be firing up the app’s execution. There are many ways to structure this class and its functionality, but here’s my way…

This class comes pre-populated when you first create the UITest project, but I have made some changes of my own for the clarity of the code.

As you can see I’m passing in an extra boolean parameter “clearData”, which is to execute a clean instance of my App for testing.

I’m using the InstalledApp() call to load the Android and the iOS apps from the simulators, also I’m enabling the EnableLocalScreenshots() to get actual screenshots of my test instances as I wish. Yeah the fact that you can automatically capture screenshots during testing even when you run locally is really cool feature of Xamarin.UITests! 😉

Now instead of getting a hook on the InstalledApp(), you could use the path to the APK or IPA file using the ApkPath() or AppBundle() respective for Android and iOS, which is totally up to your choice.

Then I’m passing in the AppDataMode parameter according to my choosing of the “clearData” value.

SetupHooks holds the instances!

Remember earlier I created a class called SetupHooks? let’s set it up now!

public class SetupHooks
{
      public static IApp App { get; set; }

      public static Platform Platform { get; set; }
}

 

During UITests execution we’re holding a singular instance of the app in memory, which we’re calling through UITest’s functions to perform many operations, so to simplify that, here we’re holding a public static instance of the IApp and Platform object to be used in our Test cases.

Pretty neat eh! 😀

Let’s write the Tests!

Create a class called AppTests, which is where we’re going to place the Test fire up code and the rest of the tests for now!

namespace XFWithUITest.UITest.Tests
{
    [TestFixture(Platform.Android)]
    //[TestFixture(Platform.iOS)]
    public class AppTests
    { 
        public AppTests(Platform platform)
        {
            SetupHooks.Platform = platform;
        }

        [SetUp]
        public void BeforeEachTest()
        {
            SetupHooks.App =  
            AppInitializer.StartApp(SetupHooks.Platform, true);
        }

        [Test]
        ...
	// test cases begin here...
		
	}
}

 

There I have added the TestFixture attributes as required by NUnit to identify our tests, and notice how I have commented out the iOS platform, to show you that you could stick to one platform at a time for your ease of testing, instead of seeing failed tests in the Test Runner window! 😉

[SetUp] is where your Tests will initialize the actual App instance, thus retrieving a hook to the app’s instance for our Test cases to use.

You can see how I’m tying up the SetupHooks – Platform and App instances, through the initiation of the AppTests.

AppInitializer.StartApp(SetupHooks.Platform, true);

This gives a clean instance of the app for our tests cases to use, and up on your wish you could pass in “false” to the same method and get a data persisted instance of the app at anytime, anywhere in your tests! 😉

Now you’re all set to start writing your UITests, but before we begin I need you to check up on something else!

AutomationId for everything!

Whatever the UI element you need to get a hook on to or get a reference of, be it a Page, Button, Layout even a Label, you need to add a value to its AutomationId.

And make sure every AutomationId in a given Page context is unique for every element, otherwise the look up function will return all the elements that matches the given Id, which could lead to confusion in your tests 😉

IApp interface functions!

The Xamarin.UITest.IApp interface provides a whole bunch of functionalities for the app for us to play around with in order to execute our test scenarios.

Take a look here, Xamarin.UITest.IApp to see the list of powerful functions we can use. To name a few are Tap, Swipe, Scroll, WaitForElement and etc, to be performed on any given UI Element on the screen.

So now all you need to do is get a hook on any given element..

Getting a hook on an Element…

There’s several ways of doing this, most common is by the AutomationId of the Element

SetupHooks.App.Tap(c => c.Marked("Button1"))

Another is by the value of an Element’s property,

SetupHooks.App.Tap(c => c.Text("Click this Button!"))

Or you could do by even the Class name of the element. Choice is completely yours, pick the one best suited for your test case.

How to write a Test?

Now this is the coolest part, Xamarin.UITest allows us to get hooks on to UI Elements of the running App, then we perform actions on those elements and wait for the results and check if it resulted as expected through assertion using NUnit.

So its basically a little dance between Xamarin.UITest and NUnit Assertion! 😉

As a standard keep in mind to append “Test” at the end of each of your Test cases.

As you can see above I’m first waiting for the HomePage to appear, then I’m asserting it through NUnit. Then I look for the Label with “Hey there, Welcome!” text!

Action and Result, simple as that! 😀

Some advanced bits…

Here’s some advanced bits that could come in handy!

Getting the number of elements in a ListView
SetupHooks.App.Query(c => c.Marked("TextListView").Child()).Length
Getting an element in a ListView
Func<AppQuery, AppQuery> itemInListView = null;

if (SetupHooks.Platform == Platform.Android)
     itemInListView = 
     x => x.Class("ViewCellRenderer_ViewCellContainer").Index(0);
else if (SetupHooks.Platform == Platform.iOS)
     itemInListView = 
     x => x.Marked("<your listview automationId>").Index(0);

// change the index parameter to get the item you wish
Opening Context Menu in a ListView item
// pop up the Context menu in ListView item
if (SetupHooks.Platform == Platform.Android)
      SetupHooks.App.TouchAndHold(firstCellInListView);
else if (SetupHooks.Platform == Platform.iOS)
      SetupHooks.App.SwipeRightToLeft(firstCellInListView);
Enter Text into an Entry or Editor
SetupHooks.App.EnterText(
c => c.Marked("TextTitleEditor"), whateverYourText);
Wait for an element to disappear
SetupHooks.App.WaitForNoElement(c => c.Text("This label text"));

// either by Text or Marked as should work
Restarting the app anywhere…
// restarting app, persisting state

SetupHooks.App = AppInitializer.StartApp(SetupHooks.Platform, false);

Check out more here in this awesome git page: XamarinTestCloudReference

REPL is your tool!

Yes start using the REPL command line to see how your App’s UI is actually rendered by the native platform at any given execution time. Simply call this anywhere you wish in the UITests steps,

App.REPL();

And you’ll be presented with a CLI which will help you see the whole UI tree of the screen. Simply type “tree” in the CLI and you’re good!

Structuring the tests..

Now there’s many ways to structure all the test cases and scenarios, and there’s no strict standard way that should be followed, but whatever you’re comfortable or fits your project is totally fine and the choice is yours!

You could include all your Test cases in the AppTest class itself, or you can break them into separate classes regarding the Page, or the functionality type.

So for this demo I’m keeping all my UITest cases in the AppTest class itself.

Running the UITests locally!

Well now that we have structured the architecture, here’s the time for actual firing things up and you’ve got couple of things to remember!

You can run your Android Tests on Simulator and Device directly without any modification as long as you provide the right APK path or the App Id.

You can run your iOS Tests only on Visual Studio for Mac, and for the device you need to pass the provisioning details, and as of simulator, you need to pass the Simulator Id.

If you’re using InstalledApp() or ConnectToApp() in your AppInitializer, then make sure the app is already deployed or running in the devices or simulator.

Also make sure to keep your Devices or Simulators or Emulators screens switched on at all times, otherwise tests will break giving a waiting exception.

That’s it!

But I’m not completely satisfied with the architecture, so let’s kick it up a notch! 😀

Little cherry on top Architecture!

Like I said before there’s many ways to construct the architecture for your Test project, one of my favourite ways is by separating the test cases by Page Scenario, which I think is a much cleaner structure.

We’re going to create a base class, “TestBase” which has the constructor initiation and BeforeEachTest setup, then create a sub classes that inherits from it representing whatever the pages we have in the App.

It should look something like this!

And don’t forget you need to add TestFixture attribute for every single sub-class!

So what you’re gonna do is take apart all the Test cases you had in one class and move them into the related pages, simply cut and paste of the methods should do! Also on top of that you could abstract another layer of shared steps that we could reuse across these Page tests. 😀

Then it should give you a clean Test output as below.

There you go, all the Tests are now nicely aligned and structured under the given Page which it associates with!

Pretty neat eh!

So this above structure of mine is somewhat more of a simplification of the Page Object Architecture which is well explained here for Xamarin.UITests: https://www.codetraveler.io/

And even in this official github sample from Xamarin uses the same similar pattern: SmartHotel.Clients.UITests

Done!

As you can see its not that hard to set up your Xamarin.Forms project with UITest once you get the basic understanding of the moving parts and keep a clear structure in your head.

Now for some of you might be experiencing some issues with Xamarin.UITest, in which case I had too when I was first starting off. Therefore I ended up writing this post sharing my experience of solving them: Getting your Xamarin UITests to actually work! So if you’re having any issues getting your Xamarin.UITests to work in Visual Studio, that post might be able to help you. 🙂

Do check out my Github repo of this post:
XAMVVM-Playground/XFWithUITest

Thus concludes my real walk-through of Xamarin.UITests with Xamarin.Forms, in which I hope you got a clear understanding of how to properly structure your project and all the moving bits and pieces that gets the job done! 😀

Share the love! 😀

Cheers!

Yaay! I became a Xamarin Certified Mobile Developer! :D

So finally on 9th of June 2017, I became a Xamarin Certified Mobile Developer. So here’s my experience of the whole Xamarin University, Certification Exam, and some tips and tricks that might help you! 🙂

Well I’ve been using Xamarin Platform for over 2 and half years now, but I never really thought of getting the official Xamarin Certification until recently my boss encouraged me to and financially supported it.

Down the memory lane of my Mobile Development enthusiasm…

So here’s a little sharing of memories down the memory lane and some tips for getting the Xamarin Certification.

I first started off developing mobile apps on Android platform, given my love for Java programming back in the early days. So I self learned Android App Development back in the middle of 1st year of my college using online tutorials and documentation.

Then at the end of 1st year, I was introduced to Windows Phone App development, which I got completely hooked on it, and then Windows Store App Development and so on, where I ended up publishing over 20+ apps to the Microsoft App Store during the next few years.

Next lucky enough I got a mobile developer opportunity at a medium size local company where it was for Xamarin Mobile Development back in 2014 December. 😀

Learning the whole Xamarin Platform by myself, I ended up completing a full fledged mobile app for that project in that company using Xamarin Forms.

Finally in 2015 December, got an overseas opportunity in Singapore for a Xamarin Mobile Developer position, which is where I ended up mastering the Xamarin Platform, Xamarin Android/iOS native development, hacking to push boundaries of the platform and so on and finally living my dream of being a Mobile App Developer. 😀

And that is where I’m currently working at June 2017, enjoying everyday of it while diving in the goodness of Xamarin Mobile Development. 😉


Xamarin University Training and Certification Preparation…

I was lucky enough my company sponsored me for Xamarin University Subscription. Otherwise its about 1000 USD for 1 year subscription or there a new monthly subscription plan with a very reasonable pricing.

Once you have the subscription you get full access for all the incredible learning materials and live lecture sessions in Xamarin University.

Is it worth it?

Now although at this point I already had like 2 years of Xamarin Mobile developement experience, I must admit that I learned way more and strengthened my knowledge on Xamarin top to bottom thanks to Xamarin University. So if you ask me if it’s worth it? at least for the Knowledge? DEFINITELY YES!

Mandatory Sessions

There’s a mandatory list of sessions that you have to complete before taking the exam, you could completely them either by attending the live lecture sessions or taking self-learn sessions (if available). Yes, some of those mandatory sessions doesn’t have the ‘self-learn’ option yet, so you have to attend to a live lecture session and get your attendance marked for it. 🙂

Instructors?

Mark my words, the instructors in Xamarin University are top-notch, and industry experts with a lot of knowledge and experience, there’s no doubt about them. You can ask anything from them regarding the session, even while the session is going on, they are very helpful and friendly, not to mention their great teaching skills. 🙂

Memorizing vs Understanding!

Do not MEMORIZE! just UNDERSTAND the content! The sessions are structured in a way that it helps you to actually understand the content with step by step exercises. I’ve never taken a single note on any of the sessions, nor tried to memorize stuff(although I’m not very good at it either), just followed through sessions and focused well during them. That’s all it takes!

Anything else?

You can take any live lecture session as many times as you wish, until you feel comfortable with the topic. There’s also many extra sessions you could attend to improve your knowledge in Azure, UI Test, Xamarin Android, Xamarin iOS. It’s good to keep in mind that the exam mandatory sessions are mainly about Xamarin Forms cross platform related topics, so you don’t have to worry if you don’t have much in-depth knowledge about native mobile development. 🙂

They also provide you a Study-Guide check-list to go through to make sure you’re prepared for what’s actually required: https://university.xamarin.com/content/certification#study-guide

Once you’ve completed the mandatory sessions, then you become eligible to sit for the certification exam!


Certification Examination!

So the Certificate Exam is a 3 hours, MCQ exam (Multiple Choice Question) which has 150 questions, and you should score over 80% in order to pass the exam.

The questions scope…

The questions are going to be completely based on the mandatory sessions in Xamarin University. Heavily focused on the Xamarin.Forms cross platform related topics. Personally I did not get any questions that are out of the scope.

So how were the questions…

If you’ve got a solid knowledge on the mandatory sessions, then you have nothing to worry about. Not keep this in mind, about 40% of the questions are straight and easy, but the rest are not going to be hard, but tricky, meaning it’s going to be little bit twisted, so you need to pay good attention to the details in each question before you pick the answer. 😉

Understand the content in the sessions, not memorize!

Basically you won’t be able to make it through the exam if you’re just trying to ‘memorize’ everything in your head, you need to have a ‘good understanding’ of the session content, in order to answer the tricky 60% of the questions.

After the exam?

Once you finish the exam, you get the results immediately. 😉 Then its time to PARRTTAAYYY!!! 😀

Xamarin University and Certification benefits!

First of all the incredible amount of knowledge and experience you gain in the whole process of Xamairn University and the Certification is priceless.

Not to mention the global recognition as Xamarin Certified Mobile Developer, having the official certificate directly validates you as someone who actually knows your way around Xamarin-stuff. Although it does not prove you as an ‘expert’, which is totally dependent on your personal industry experience.

Access to Xamarin DevConnect portal, to showcase your portfolio and connect with fellow developers.

There are few other awesome benefits you get according to Xamarin official site as follows. Certification is valid for 1 year from the date you have passed the exam. Certifications can be verified on our public Xamarin Certified Developers page.

Receive a badge, fun Xamarin swag, and an invitation to join the official Xamarin Certified Developers community on LinkedIn.

Cool, so what do I get to show off?

Except for the massive amount of knowledge and experience I gained from the Xamarin University Sessions and Training, here are some other show-off stuff I got after being certified.

So brace yourselves for some self promotional bragging! 😛

Xamarin Certified Developer Verification Online:

https://university.xamarin.com/certification?q=Udara@xamariners.com#verify

You get a link that can be shared online for the verification of your Certification status. This is the source you could include in your LinkedIn or personal portfolio for the verification.

Xamarin University Profile Badge: 

Once you get the certification, your Xamarin University profile gets updated as such.

Xamarin Certified Developer Certification (soft copy): 

You actually get a PDF version of your certification (here is a screenshot of it).

Bunch of Xamarin Certified Developer badge Images (HD):

Then you get a whole bunch of Certified Mobile Developer badges in low, mid and high resolution for you to share on any of your websites or portfolios. 🙂

Xamarin DevConnect Profile:

You get access to Xamarin DevConnect, the official Xamarin Certified Developer portal from Xamarin, where you can publish your portfolio, connect with fellow certified developers from all over the world, and open up yourself for new opportunities.

https://devconnect.xamarin.com/profile/389


Well that’s it all I got for now… 😀

Although some claim that you get kind of a Xamarin souvenir trophy and a goodie bag by mail, but I’m yet to get any of that. lol. *fingers cross* 😛

So If anyone needs any help or clarifications regarding Xamarin Certification, I’m more than happy to help, drop me a mail or comment down in the post. 🙂

To get started:  https://www.xamarin.com/university

Good luck everyone with your Xamarin Certification! 🙂

Cheers!