The step by step set up of Media Plugin for Xamarin.Forms!

Let’s properly set up Media Plugin (Xam.Plugin.Media) for Xamarin.Forms, harnessing the full capabilities with an optimized implementation! 😀

This is a continuation from my previous blog post, Behold the check-list of Media Plugin set up for Xamarin.Forms! where I shared the list of important bits you need to focus on when setting up the Media Plugin.

So here I’m building up on that and compiling a step by step guide implementation of the Xam.Plugin.Media for Xamarin.Forms, with the latest updates!

Backstory…

During my recent implementation with the Media Plugin for Xamarin.Forms, I realize that there are some new updates to this Plugin and its dependent Permission plugin that are not documented properly out there!

So I thought of writing up a new article with those updated bits and a better implementation with this library in a proper manner to harness the best of its performance and features without running into accidental bugs! 😉

Media Plugin – Xam.Plugin.Media!

Xam.Plugin.Media is the free Plugin Library by James Montemagno, that allows us to easily interact with Capturing Photos and Video and accessing them from the device Galley using Xamarin.Forms! So this library provides two main functionalities,

  • Capture Photos/Videos from Camera
  • Pick Photos/Videos from Gallery

Apart from that it allows you to Crop, Compress Photos, Set Custom Sizing and Quality, Save to Albums, and etc. It fully supports Android, iOS, UWP (Windows), and even Tizen device platforms. Quite an awesome library for sure!

Github: https://github.com/jamesmontemagno/MediaPlugin
Nuget: http://www.nuget.org/packages/Xam.Plugin.Media

This library internally depends itself on Permissions Plugin (Plugin.Permissions) for taking care of the Permissions that are required to handle in each Native platform to access Camera features and device Gallery features.

Step by Step!

Alright then let’s take a step by step walk through of setting up Media Plugin in your Xamarin.Forms project from scratch!

1. Let the set up begin!

Assuming you have already created your Xamarin.Forms project, let’s begin by adding the Xam.Plugin.Media into your Project from Nuget Package Manager.

Lets search for “Xam.Plugin.Media” in Nuget and install the library for all the project nodes in your solution, Xamarin.Forms Host project, Android, iOS, and UWP (Windows) platform nodes.

2. Initialize()!

Then you need to set up the Initialization of the Media Plugin in the Xamarin.Forms layer, by calling up the Initialize() method preferably at the start up of the App.

If you’re using a Service instance to be used with Media Plugin, then you should set this is up in the Constructor of it.

Now let’s set up the configuration for all the platform projects one by one…

Let’s set up Android!

Let’s begin with the Android bits, which is the longest set of configuration.

1. Permissions in AndroidManifest!

by adding the Permission bits that are required for the Media Plugin. Simply go to Android Project -> Properties -> Click on “Android Manifest” tab -> scroll down to “Required Permissions” section…

Simply select those two Permissions, for Reading and Writing data to the device storage, in terms of Capturing Photos and Videos and saving them during run time.

You could even add them manually in the AndroidManifest.xml file.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest ... >
    <uses-sdk ... />
    <application ... >
    ...
	<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
	<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
    ...
  </application>
    ...
</manifest>

Then again, unless you’re going to saving your captured Photos or Videos then no need to add the “WRITE” permission. So make sure to decide on your requirement.

2. Permission Plugin – OnRequestPermissionsResult()

Next we need to set up the call back for the Permission Plugin on the OnRequestPermissionsResult() method in your MainActivity.cs class.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.Android/MainActivity.cs

Visual Studio 2019 adds the override of this method automatically to your MainActivity class, but if its not there you need to set up as shown above.

3. FileProviderfile_paths.xml

We need to set up the FileProvider path values in the file_paths.xml, so go ahead create a new folder called “xml” in your “Resources” folder, and add a new XML file called “file_paths.xml” with the following content.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.Android/Resources/xml/file_paths.xml

Oh, and make sure the Build Action of that file is set to “AndroidResource” in Properties.

4. FileProvider in AndroidManifest!

Then let’s add the FileProvider definition in the AndroidManifest.xml

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.Android/Properties/AndroidManifest.xml

This should be added inside the <application> node.

5. Plugin.CurrentActity set up…

We need to set up the Plugin.CurrentActivity plugin for Media Plugin to attach itself to the active Activity during the run time. Nuget Package Manager -> install Plugin.CurrentActivity, only into your Android project node.

Now that’s installed we need to set it up in the code as well.

6. Plugin.CurrentActity Initialization!

First we need to create the MainApplication.cs class set up that inherits from Android.App.Application base for initializing the CrossCurrentActivity Instance up on the Activity change at run time.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.Android/MainApplication.cs

Next we need to set up the init() call on MainActivity.cs class as well.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.Android/MainActivity.cs

Here also we’re calling the Init() method of CurrentActivity plugin but this time we’re forwarding the Bundle parameter that’s passed into the OnCreate() method.

7. Hardware Requirement filter!?!

Now this is an optional step, once your app is published, and you want to Google Play store to make your app available only for devices that has the following features, “Camera”, “Camera with Auto Focus”, etc, then you need to add the following “UsesFeatures” attributes to your AssemblyInfo.cs file.

That concludes the Android project set up.

Let’s set up iOS!

The iOS set up is much easier actually where we only have to set up the permissions.

1. Permissions in Info.plist!

On your iOS project, right click on the Info.plist file -> Open With -> select XML (Text) Editor option, which will open up in the XML editor window as follows.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.iOS/Info.plist

You need to add Permissions as shown here, with an appropriate description, which will be used to show to the User when the Permissions are being requested at run time. You need to explain what those Permissions are used for in your app.

<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    ...
    ...
    <key>NSCameraUsageDescription</key>
    <string>This app needs access to the camera to take photos.</string>
    <key>NSPhotoLibraryUsageDescription</key>
    <string>This app needs access to photos.</string>
    <key>NSMicrophoneUsageDescription</key>
    <string>This app needs access to microphone.</string>
    <key>NSPhotoLibraryAddUsageDescription</key>
    <string>This app needs access to the photo gallery.</string>
</dict>
</plist>

But here also I’m reminding, set up only the Permissions that are absolutely required by your app’s functionality.

That concludes the iOS project set up.

Let’s set up UWP!

Well in UWP (Windows) project is even more easier to set up

1. Permissions in Package.appxmanifest!

Simply open up the Package.appxmanifest file in your UWP project -> Go to “Capabilities” tab -> Tick on “Webcam” option from the Capabilities list.

on github: /XFMediaPluginDemo.UWP/Package.appxmanifest

That concludes the UWP project set up.

Let the Xamarin.Forms, coding begin!

Now this is where we’re going to set up our implementation to use the Media Plugin in our Xamarin.Forms project host.

Doesn’t matter whether you’re going to implement in Page code behind or MVVM heavy ViewModel, we should maintain a clean decoupled structure as much as possible.

Pre-requisites!

So each feature we access we need to perform the following,

  • Check for the availability of the feature (ex: Camera, Gallery)

    Media Plugin provides these bool properties which allows you to check for the availability of the features you want to access, such as Camera, and Gallery. If they return true then it is safe to proceed with the call.
...
if (!CrossMedia.Current.IsCameraAvailable ||
		!CrossMedia.Current.IsTakePhotoSupported)
{
	await DisplayAlert("No Camera", 
              "Sorry! No camera available.", "OK");
	return null;
}
...
  • Check for the status of the Permission required (ex: Camera, Storage)

    This is another safety layer that is also recommended, checking the Status of the Permission before you access those features from Media Plugin. Based on it you can perform requesting Permission from the User during run time using the Permission Plugin that’s already set up in your project.
...
var cameraStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
			CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Camera);
var storageStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
			CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Storage);
var photosStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
			CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Photos);
...

Those two check ups are recommended as safety layers for smooth experience for the user and to avoid running into unexpected issues. Once those two calls are satisfied, then we can access the feature we need. 😉

It is best to have separate methods for each specific action, such as Capture new Photo or Select a new Photo from Gallery and those methods should return the resulting ImageSource object or default failure value.

Camera Feature – TakePhoto()

Here’s the method implementation that you can use to Capture Photo using the device Camera and return an ImageSource upon success.

public async Task<ImageSource> TakePhoto()
{
	if (!CrossMedia.Current.IsCameraAvailable ||
			!CrossMedia.Current.IsTakePhotoSupported)
	{
		await DisplayAlert("No Camera", 
                    "Sorry! No camera available.", "OK");
		return null;
	}

	var isPermissionGranted = await RequestCameraAndGalleryPermissions();
	if (!isPermissionGranted)
		return null;

	var file = await CrossMedia.Current.TakePhotoAsync(new 
        Plugin.Media.Abstractions.StoreCameraMediaOptions
	{
		Directory = "TestPhotoFolder",
		SaveToAlbum = true,
                PhotoSize = PhotoSize.Medium,
	});

	if (file == null)
		return null;

	var imageSource = ImageSource.FromStream(() =>
	{
		var stream = file.GetStream();
		return stream;
	});

	return imageSource;
}

You can easily use this for a Page behind code implementation or a Service layer implementation for Capturing Photos.

StoreCameraMediaOptions provides you with a whole bunch of features you can easily use to customize and resize the captured Photo within the library itself. 😀

Gallery Feature – SelectPhoto()

Here’s the method implementation that you can use to Select Photo using the device Gallery and return an ImageSource upon success.

public async Task<ImageSource> SelectPhoto()
{
	if (!CrossMedia.Current.IsPickPhotoSupported)
	{
		await DisplayAlert("Photos Not Supported", 
                   "Sorry! Permission not granted to photos.", "OK");
		return null;
	}

	var isPermissionGranted = await RequestCameraAndGalleryPermissions();
	if (!isPermissionGranted)
		return null;

	var file = await Plugin.Media.CrossMedia.Current.PickPhotoAsync(new 
        Plugin.Media.Abstractions.PickMediaOptions
	{
		PhotoSize = Plugin.Media.Abstractions.PhotoSize.Medium,
	});

	if (file == null)
		return null;

	var imageSource = ImageSource.FromStream(() =>
	{
		var stream = file.GetStream();
		return stream;
	});

	return imageSource;
}

In both above methods we are first checking the availability of the feature, and then the status of the permission, before we make the call to Media Plugin.

You can see that upon successful execution completion we’re returning the retrieved ImageSource, otherwise in any case of failure we return null. Also you can remove DisplayAlert() set up, if you’re using a Service layer, instead just throw an Exception which you can handle at the point of execution. 😉

Permission Checkup!

As you can see we have a method call to RequestCameraAndGalleryPermissions() which checks for the Permission status for the features we need to access, which implements as follows.

private async Task<bool> RequestCameraAndGalleryPermissions() 
{
	var cameraStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
	CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Camera);
	var storageStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
	CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Storage);
	var photosStatus = await CrossPermissions.Current.
	CheckPermissionStatusAsync(Permission.Photos);

	if (
	cameraStatus != PermissionStatus.Granted || 
	storageStatus != PermissionStatus.Granted || 
	photosStatus != PermissionStatus.Granted)
	{
		var permissionRequestResult = await CrossPermissions.Current.
		RequestPermissionsAsync(
			new Permission[] 
			{ 
				Permission.Camera, 
				Permission.Storage, 
				Permission.Photos 
			});

		var cameraResult = permissionRequestResult[Permission.Camera];
		var storageResult = permissionRequestResult[Permission.Storage];
		var photosResults = permissionRequestResult[Permission.Photos];

		return (
			cameraResult != PermissionStatus.Denied &&
			storageResult != PermissionStatus.Denied &&
			photosResults != PermissionStatus.Denied);
	}

	return true;
}

We’re check for Camera, Storage, Photos access permission status, which are required for Camera and Gallery access from the User in all the platforms. As you can see based on the existing status we request the Permission from user, and return the results. This will prompt the user with the popups asking for Permission to access. 😀

A better, Permission Checkup!

Just to make it more cleaner and decoupled, here’s an improved Permission check up method where you can pass in the exact Permission you need to check and it will take care of it. Oh and this is very much reusable for any kind! 😉

private async Task<bool> RequestPermissions(List<Permission> permissionList)
{
	List<PermissionStatus> permissionStatuses = new List<PermissionStatus>();
	foreach (var permission in permissionList)
	{
		var status = await CrossPermissions.Current.
		CheckPermissionStatusAsync(permission);
		permissionStatuses.Add(status);
	}

	var requiresRequesst = permissionStatuses
                                 .Any(x => x != PermissionStatus.Granted);

	if (requiresRequesst)
	{
		var permissionRequestResult = await CrossPermissions.Current.
		RequestPermissionsAsync(permissionList.ToArray());
		
		return permissionRequestResult
			.All(x => x.Value != PermissionStatus.Denied);
	}

	return true;
}

You simply have to pass in the Permission you want to check for as follows,

public async Task<ImageSource> TakePhoto()
{
	...
	var isPermissionGranted = await RequestPermissions
	(new List<Permission>(){ Permission.Camera, Permission.Storage }); 
	if (!isPermissionGranted)
		return null;
	...
}

public async Task<ImageSource> SelectPhoto()
{
	...
	var isPermissionGranted = await RequestPermissions
	(new List<Permission>(){ Permission.Photos }); 
	if (!isPermissionGranted)
		return null;
	...
}

You can pass in any kind of Permission type for check and request for Granted status.

Exception Handle!

You can see I’m not handling exceptions in here, that I would leave to the execution point of these methods calls.

try
{
	var result = await SelectPhoto();
	if (result != null)
		viewPhotoImage.Source = result;
}
catch (Exception ex)
{
	// handle your exception
}

This I believe the best way to handle any exceptions that could occur, could be in your ContentPage code behind or ViewModel. 😀

Main Thread!

Unless you’re calling these features of Media Plugin from a code behind Event handler, then you need to make sure this is executed on the app’s Main Thread.

https://theconfuzedsourcecode.wordpress.com/2020/01/27/behold-the-check-list-of-media-plugin-set-up-for-xamarin-forms/#Run-on-UI-Thread

If you ever run into any issues, make sure you have gone through my previous blog post: Behold the check-list of Media Plugin set up for Xamarin.Forms! which will definitely help you tackle any issues easily!

Well that sums it up the whole set up and a bit of under the hood check up!

Fire up the Demo!

So just for this article I created a simple demo that reflects all of this recipe of better implementation of Media Plugin for Xamarin.Forms!

Check it on my github: github.com/XFMediaPluginDemo

Side by side on Android, iOS, and UWP!

Conclusion

Following this guide you can easily implement the Media Plugin for Xamarin.Forms with a proper maintainable architecture! Although setting up might seem a bit tedious, its actually quite straight forward. Like I’ve shown in the code you need to handle Async Await calls properly and up to the UI Thread and exception handling.

Some of those bits that I have shared here aren’t mentioned in the plugin docs yet, since they’re out of date. So I really hope this helps you fellow devs!

Share the love! 😀 Cheers!

1 thought on “The step by step set up of Media Plugin for Xamarin.Forms!

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